Automotive Research Association of India
Research Institute of the Automotive Industry with the Ministry of Heavy Industries & Public Enterprises, Govt. of India
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Alternative Fuel
ALTERNATIVE FUEL ENGINE DEVELOPMENT AT ARAI
  Development of CNG/LPG engines with carburetion and injection kit Fuel Technologies.
  Optimization and Modification of Multistage Pressure reducers
  Optimization with LPG kit includes emission optimization
  6-Cylinder HCNG naturally aspirated engine using the lean burn concept of combustion is under development for urban transportation
Completed several projects with
  Landi-Renzo   Vialle   Lovato   Omnitek
  AFS   BRC   Impco   Vanaz

Development of alternatively fueled engines has become vital in order to meet the increasingly stringent emissions norms being implemented globally. Furthermore, alternative fuels provide a cost benefit, due to the lower costs of production of these fuels. Compressed Natural Gas (CNG), Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) and Hydrogen-CNG blended fuel (HCNG) are promising alternative fuels in India. The Engine development lab at ARAI has developed several CNG engines for Indian OEMs ranging from 2 stroke 3 wheeler engines to heavy duty commercial engines. Various sub-systems of the baseline SI/CI engine, such as the air-intake system, combustion bowl, CR, the exhaust system, after treatment device are reviewed and suitably modified to achieve the target specifications. ARAI has experience of developing CNG/LPG engines with carburetion and injection kit fuel technologies and has completed several projects with reputed suppliers such as Landi-Renzo, AFS, Vialle, BRC, Lovato, Impco, Omnitek, ad Vanaz. Fuel system parts such as 1st stage reducer, 2nd stage reducer, mixer are also suitably modified & optimized to achieve target specifications.
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The CNG engines & vehicles developed by ARAI have passed current emission norms with comfortable margins in CO & NMHC+ NOx emissions. Most of the ARAI developed engines have been commercialized and are successfully running in the field. CNG Bus engine developed at ARAI. As exhibited by the results, Closed loop control of CNG engines results in a large reduction in NOx and PM emissions as compared to diesel engines. CNG Injected engine can meet Euro-IV norms easily and have superior performance as compared to carbureted engines. The charge stratification in the CNG combustion chamber permits extremely lean combustion without high cycle-by-cycle variations with high combustion efficiency.

ARAI has expertise in development of LPG engines. Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) is a prominent alternative fuel with well developed distribution infrastructure and increasing number of Gasoline engines are now being converted to run on LPG considering the fuel economy and low exhaust emissions. ARAI has developed several bi-fuel (LPG/Gasoline) and dedicated LPG engines ranging from single cylinder two wheeler engines to advanced 4 cylinder passenger car engines. Optimization with LPG kit includes emission optimization on to give equivalent mileage on Gasoline. Figure 2 shows a typical LPG engine developed by ARAI.

Traditionally CNG vehicles have been developed in India in variety of segments and have contributed to cleaning the ambient conditions of cities like Delhi. However the persistent NOx levels are becoming a hotly debated issue. One of the solutions to this crisis is the addition of Hydrogen to CNG. The Hydrogen + CNG fuel referred to as HCNG has the potential to lower emissions including NOx as compared to CNG and is considered to be the first step towards promotion of a Hydrogen economy. ARAI is developing a 6-Cylinder HCNG naturally aspirated engine using the lean burn concept of combustion. The six cylinder engine was chosen due to its importance for urban bus transportation. In this study the lean burn combustion concept has been evaluated for varying HCNG blends. The HCNG engine has potential to meet Euro-IV and beyond norms with Injection technology. It is also expected that HCNG fuel blends reduce NOx emissions by approximately 50%, non-methane hydrocarbons by 58%, and total hydrocarbons by 23% and CO2 by 7% as compared to CNG. No PM emissions are observed in CNG or HCNG engines.

ARAI is fully equipped and has the expertise to undertake development projects for all types of CNG, LPG & HCNG engines for the automotive industry.

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